Availability of “bare necessities” such as housing
CBSE Board Class 12 English Un-Solved Passages
Chapter – 5 Reading Comprehension V (Case based Factual Passages)
Read the following passage carefully:
1. Availability of “bare necessities” such as housing, water, sanitation, electricity and clean cooking fuel has improved across all states in the country in 2018 compared to 2012, the Economic Survey for 2020-21 showed.
2. According to the first ever BNI (bare necessities index), released as part of the 2020-21 survey on Friday, access to these is the highest in states such as Kerala, Punjab, Haryana and Gujarat, while it is the lowest in Odisha, Jharkhand, West Bengal and Tripura.
3. The BNI has been developed for rural, urban and all-India level using data from two NEO (National Statistics Office) surveys (rounds 69 and 76) on drinking water, sanitation, hygiene and housing conditions. The index summarizes 26 indicators on five dimension Sauter, sanitation, housing, micro environment, and other facilities (assessed using indicators like access to type of kitchen, ventilation of the dwelling unit, access to a bathroom, electricity and type of fuel used for cooking).
4. The BNI also indicates that inter-state disparities in the access to the bare necessities have declined in 2018 when compared to 2012 across rural and urban areas. Access to “the bare necessities” has improved disproportionately more for the poorest households when compared to the richest household.
5. The improvement in equity is particularly noteworthy because while the rich can seek private alternatives, lobby for better services, or if need be, move to areas where public goods are better provided for, the poor rarely have such choices,” the survey said.
6. Data from the National Family Health Surveys have been studied to correlate the BNI in 2012 and 2018 with the infant mortality rate and the under-5 mortality rate in 2015-16 and 2019-20, respectively. The survey reports that improved access to “the bare necessities” has led to improvements in health indicators and correlates with future improvements in education indicators.
7. In rural India, the highest access to bare necessities in 2018 was recorded in Punjab, Kerala, Sikkim, Goa and Delhi, while the lowest was in Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Odisha, Assam, Manipur and Tripura.
8. In urban India, no state is showing the lowest level of BNI in 2018, and the states showing improvement over 2012 include Uttarakhand, Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Rajasthan, Madbya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Arunachal Pradesh and Manipur However, to bridge the gaps, it is recommended that there must be effective convergence in scheme implementation at the Centre-state and local levels. “For this purpose, a BNI based un large annual household survey data can be constructed using suitable indicators and methodology at district level for all-targeted districts to assess the progress on access to bare necessities,” the report states.
A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage answer the questions given below by choosing one of the options that follow:
(i) By introducing the BNI, the Survey in concerned about:
(a) consumption of water, electricity, cooking fuel and other consumables.
(c) improvement in quality of living in general.
(d) in-house ventilation.
(ii) The basic methodology adopted has been:
(a) inclusion of more indicators.
(b) bringing more areas under the survey.
(c) covering more population.
(d) comparing data from two surveys.
(iii) To develop the BNI, the NSO surveys provided data on:
(a) housing conditions.
(b) sanitation and hygiene.
(c) drinking water.
(d) All of these.
(iv) One of the following is not among the five dimensions the Basic Necessities Index is built on.
(v) Indicators like ‘access to type of kitchen’ and ‘type of fuel used for cooking’ measures the improvement in living conditions of :
(b) whole family
(d) None of these
B. Answer the following questions briefly:
(i) What are the bare necessities mentioned in the article?
(ii) What does the BNI indicate?
(iii) What does consistent improvement in access to bare necessities over a period of time result in?
(iv) From the passage select the word which means ‘pointers”.
(v) From the passage select the word meaning the opposite of ‘similarities’.